The research methods were of different kinds also because the Shroud research embraces the most varied fields, each with methods and protocols of its own.
From this point of view the Shroud research can be divided into three periods. In the first period (1898-1969) surveys were on image and tissue visual study going into those issues that can be faced through pictures examination, the Pia 1898 ones and, after, those by Enrie in 1931:
- the study of the cloth textile features and its comparison to ancient tissues;
- the image "topographic" description through legal medicine methods that enabled to better know the anatomical features of the man of the Shroud, the wounds and trauma he was subjected to and his death cause. This study took place with the help of laboratory experiments to reconstruct and study the consequences of the crucifixion and the other tortures that followed;
- the theoretical and experimental study of image formation modalities trying to understand through which natural process (chemical, physical, biological, ecc.) a corpse may leave on a cloth a trace with similar characteristics to those of the image on the Shroud.